Skip navigation links
About Us
Beach and Marine
Climate Change
Environmental Lab
Land Stewardship
Water Resources
Skip navigation links
Energy and Sustainability
Energy Sense
Seal of Sustainability
Star Community Rating System
Sustainability Stewards
Urban Lands Enhancement Program
Climate Change
Climate Change Taskforce
Climate Resilience
Policy Tools
Technical Tools
Vulnerability Assessments
Southeast Florida Regional Climate Change Compact
Environmental Protection and Growth Management Department Home
Sea Level

Sea Levels Online - This NOAA interactive site shows regional trends in sea level, including direction and magnitude of change figures for specific locations.

NOAA Technical Report NOS CO-OPS 051- Elevated East Coast Sea Level Anomaly: June – July 2009. The 40 page report describes significant sea level anomalies on the east coast of the United States.

Water Resource Policies and Authorities Incorporating Sea-Level Change Considerations in Civil Works Programs:  July 2009  This 31 page circular provides United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) guidance for incorporating the direct and indirect physical effects of projected future sea-level change in managing, planning, engineering, designing, constructing, operating, and maintaining USACE projects and systems of projects.

Proceedings from the Sea Level Rise and Inundation Community Workshop, Lansdowne, MD, Dec 3-5, 2009. 2010. Culver et al. edit the proceedings of this NOAA and USGS sponsored workshop. This 85 page report details the outcome of discussions with leaders in the academic, federal, and local governmental, nongovernmental, and private sectors on creating a feamework for the coordinated and effective response to sea-level rise and coastal inundation. 

Global mean sea level bibliography through 2005

The Role of Greenland in Sea Level Rise -A Summary of the Current Literature (PDF):   July 2007. This bibliography was compiled by the Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change.

Baer, P. and J.S. Risbey. 2009. Uncertainty and assessment of the issues posed by urgent climate change. An editorial comment. Climatic Change (2009) 92:31-36 DOI 10.1007/s10584-008-9529-3.   Abstract

Bamber,  J. L., R. E. M. Riva, B. L. A. Vermeersen, and A. M. LeBrocq. 2009.  Reassessment of the Potential Sea-Level Rise from a Collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Science 15 May 2009: Vol. 324. no. 5929, pp. 901 – 903 DOI: 10.1126/science.1169335

Bindoff, N.L., J. Willebrand, V. Artale, A. Cazenave, J. Gregory, S. Gulev, K. Hanawa, Le Quéré, S. Levitus, Y. Nojiri, C.K. Shum, L.D. Talley, and A. Unnikrishnan, 2007:  Observations: oceanic climate change and sea level. Chapter 5 (PDF)   In: Climate Change 2007:  The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Avery, M. Tignor, and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, pp. 385-432.

Blanchon,P.,A. Eisenhauer, Jan Fietzke, and V. Liebetrau. 2009.  Rapid sea-level rise and reef back-stepping at the close of the last interglacial highstand. Letter. Nature 458, 881-884 (16 April 2009) doi:10.1038/nature07933.

Cayan, D. R., P. D. Bromirski, K. Hayhoe, M. Tyree, M. D. Dettinger and R. E. Flick. 2008.  Climate change projections of sea level extremes along the California coast (PDF). Climatic Change (2008) 87 (Suppl 1): S57-S73 DOI 10.1007/s10584-007-9376-7

Cazenave, A., A. Lombard, and W. Llovel. 2008.  Present-day sea level rise: A synthesis.  Geoscience, 340(2008) 761-770. 

CCSP, 2008:  Climate Models: An Assessment of Strengths and Limitations (PDF).  A Report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research [Bader D.C., C. Covey, W.J. Gutowski Jr., I.M. Held, K.E. Kunkel, R.L. Miller, R.T. Tokmakian and M.H. Zhang (Authors)].  Department of Energy, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Washington, D.C., USA, 124 pp.

CCSP, 2009:  Coastal Sensitivity to Sea-Level Rise: A Focus on the Mid-Atlantic Region. A report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research.

Church, J. A., and N. J. White. 2006.  A 20th century acceleration in global sea-level rise (PDF). Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L01602, doi:10.1029/2005GL024826.  Abstract

Domingues, C.M., Church, J.A., White, N.J., Gleckler, P.J., Wijffels, S.E., Barker, P.M., and Dunn, J.R., 2008, Improved estimates of upper-ocean warming and multi-decadal sea-level rise: Nature, v. 453, no. 19, p. 1,090-1,093.  Abstract

Fujinawa, K., T. Iba, Y. Fujihara, and T. Watanabe. 2009. Modeling Interaction of Fluid and Salt in an Aquifer/Lagoon System. Vol. 47, No. 1-Groundwater-January-February 2009 (pages 35-48).  Abstract

Grinstad Blog: Jan 25, 2009.   Hindcasts using the Rahmstorf 2007 model on

Grinsted, A., J. C. Moore, and S. Jevrejeva (2009),  Reconstructing sea level from Paleo and projected temperatures 200 to 2100AD (PDF), Clim. Dyn., doi:10.1007/s00382-008-0507-2. Abstract

Hansen, J.E. 2007.  Scientific reticence and sea level rise. Environ. Res. Lett 2 (2007) 024002 6 pp.

Harrington J. and T.L. Walton. 2007.  Climate change in coastal areas in Florida: Sea level rise estimation and economic analysis to year 2080 (PDF). Center for Economic Forecasting and Analysis, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL. 87p.

Heberger, M., H. Cooley, P. Herrera, P. H. Gleick, and E. Moore. March 2009.   The Impacts of Sea-level Rise on the California Coast. A Paper From California Climate Change Center prepared by the Pacific Institute.

Holgate, S., S. Jevrejeva, P. Woodworth, and S. Brewer. 2007. Comment on "A Semi-Empirical Approach to Projecting Future Sea-Level Rise" Science 28 September 2007: Vol. 317. no. 5846, p. 1866, DOI: 10.1126/science. 1140942.  Abstract

IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), 2007: Climate Change 2007:  The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, 996 pp.

IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. 2005.  Guidance Notes for Lead Authors of the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report on Addressing Uncertainties (PDF)

Jevrejeva, S., A. Grinsted, J. C. Moore, and S. Holgate (2006), Nonlinear trends and multiyear cycles in sea level records, J. Geophys. Res., 111, C09012, doi:10.1029/2005JC003229.  Abstract

Jevrejeva, S., J. C. Moore, and A. Grinsted (2008), Relative importance of mass and volume changes to global sea level rise, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D08105, doi:10.1029/2007JD009208.  Abstract

Jevrejeva, S., J.C. Moore, A. Grinsted, and P.L. Woodworth, 2008: Recent global sea level acceleration started over 200 years ago? Geophysical Research Letters, 35, L08715, doi:10.1029/2008GL033611.  Abstract

Knutti, R. 2008.  Should we believe model predictions of future climate change?  Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A (2008) 366, 4647-4664, doi:10.1098/rsta.2008.0169, Published online 25 September 2008

Maul, G.A., and H.J. Sims, 2007. Florida Coastal Temperature Trends: Comparing independent datasets. Florida Scientist, 70(1), pp: 71-82.  Abstract

Maul, G.A., and D.M. Martin. 1993, Sea Level Rise at Key West, Florida, 1846-1992: America's Longest Instrument Record? Geophysical Research Letters, v. 20, no. 18, p. 1955-1958.  Abstract

Maul,G.A. 2008.  Florida's changing sea level. Shoreline: May 2008. Florida Shore and Beach Preservation Association. 3p.

Meier, M., M. B. Dyurgerov, U.K. Rick, S. O'Neel, W. T. Pfeffer, R.S. Anderson, S.P. Anderson, and A.F. Glazovsky.  2007. Glaciers Dominate Eustatic Sea-Level Rise in the 21st Century. Science Vol 317. no. 5841, pp. 1064 - 1067. DOI: 10.1126/science.1143906.  Abstract

Meehl, G.A., T.F. Stocker, W.D. Collins, P. Friedlingstein, A.T. Gaye, J.M. Gregory, A. Kitoh, R. Knutti, J.M. Murphy, A. Noda, S.C.B. Raper, I.G. Watterson, A.J. Weaver and Z.-C. Zhao, 2007:  Global Climate Projections. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

Miami Dade Climate Change Advisory Task Force -  Science Committee Recommendation on Sea Level Rise (PDF)  See pages 26-36 in the pdf.

Milne, G. 2008. How the climate drives sea-level changes.  Astronomy & Geophysics. 49 (2) 2.24-2.28. 2008. 1468-4004.  Abstract

Milne, G.A., W. R. Gehrels, C.W. Hughes and M.E. Tamisiea. 2009. Identifying the causes of sea level change. Nature Geoscience Vol 2: 471-478. doi: 10.1038/ngeo544  Abstract 

Mitrovica, J.X., N. Gomez, P.U. Clark. 2009. The Sea-Level Fingerprint of West Antarctic Collapse. Science Vol. 323. no. 5915, p. 753 DOI: 10.1126/science.1166510.  Abstract

Nicholls, R.J. and R.S. Tol. 2006.  Impacts and responses to sea-level rise: a global analysis of the SRES scenarios over the twenty-first century. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A (2006) 364, 1073-1095, doi:10.1098/rsta.2006.1754, Published online 23 February 2006

Pfeffer, W.T., J.T. Harper, and S. O'Neel. 2008. Kinematic Constraints on Glacier Contributions to 21st-Century Sea-Level Rise. Science Vol 321:1340-1343.  AbstractRahmstorf, S. Blog : 26 January 2009.  Sea will rise 'to levels of last Ice Age' on 

Rahmstorf, S., 2007. Response to Comments on "A Semi-Empirical Approach to Projecting Future Sea-Level Rise" Science 317, 1866d (2007); DOI: 10.1126/science.1141283.  Abstract

Rahmstorf, S., 2007: A semi-empirical approach to projecting future sea-level rise. Science, 315(5810), 368-370. Abstract

Rahmstorf, S., A. Cazenave, J.A. Church, J.E. Hansen, R.F. Keeling, D.E. Parker, and R.C.J. Somerville, 2007: Recent climate observations compared to projections. Science, 316(5825), 709.  Abstract

Rohling, E. J., K. Grant, M. Bolshaw, A. P. Roberts, M. Siddall, Ch. Hemleben and M. Kucera. Antarctic temperature and global sea level closely coupled over the past five glacial cycles. June 2009.  Nature Geoscience letters. DOI: 10.1038/NGEO557. Vol 2: 500-504. Abstract 

Schmith, Y., S. Johansen, and P. Thejll. 2007. Comment on "A Semi-Empirical Approach to Projecting Future Sea-Level Rise" Science 317, 1866c (2007);DOI: 10.1126/science.1143286.  Abstract

Siddall, M., T. F. Stocker, and P. U. Clark. 2009. Constraints on future sea-level rise from past sea-level change. Nature Geoscience 2, 571 - 575 (2009) doi:10.1038/ngeo587. Abstract

Skinner, L. 2008.  Facing future climate change: is the past relevant? Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A (2008) 366, 4627-4645, doi:10.1098/rsta.2008.0228, Published online 25 September 2008

Steig EJ, Schneider DP, Rutherford SD, Mann ME, Comiso JC, Shindell DT. Warming of the Antarctic ice sheet surface since the 1957 International Geophysical Year. Nature 457, p 459-462.  Abstract

Werner, A. D. and C.T. Simmons. 2009. Impact of Sea-Level Rise on Sea Water Intrusion in Coastal Aquifers Vol. 47, No. 2-GROUND WATER-March-April 2009 (pages 197-204).  Abstract

Woodworth, P.L., 2006.  Some important issues to do with long-term sea level change. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A (2006) 364, 787-803, doi:10.1098/rsta.2006.1737, Published online 21 February 2006

Zervas, C., 2001.  Sea Level Variations of the United States 1854-1999 (PDF).  NOAA technical report NOS CO-OPS 36. NOAA National Ocean Service, Silver Spring, MD, 186 pp.

Zwally, H.J., W. Abdalati, T. Herring, K. Larson, J. Saba, and K. Steffen. 2002. Surface Melt-Induced Acceleration of Greenland Ice-Sheet Flow. Science 12 July 2002: Vol. 297. no. 5579, pp. 218 - 222, DOI: 10.1126/science.1072708.  Abstract

Required Plug-ins: PDF icon  Adobe® Reader®