Bound to Please: an Exhibition of Fine Leather Bindings from the University of Miami Library --- SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY
INDEX OF BINDERS AND BINDERIES
CHRONOLOGY
ADDENDUM

Acknowledgements
Bienes Center for the Literary Arts
Introduction
Vellum or Parchment Bindings
Pigskin Bindings
Colors and Surfaces
Inlays and Onlays
Mottling & Sprinkling
Spanish Marbling
Gold Tooling
Modern Gold Tooling
Diapered
Central Ornamentation
Retrospective Bindings
Modern English Bindings

Exotica

Foreword

Bound to Please: an Exhibition of Fine Leather Bindings from the University of Miami Library is a selection of 70 volumes from the extensive rare book holdings of the Library's Archives and Special Collections Department. The catalog describes and illustrates a diverse and exquisite group of leather bindings dating from the fifteenth through the early twentieth century and includes books from the United States, Cuba, Spain, France, Germany, Italy, and The Netherlands.

Book lovers, whether avid collectors, experienced dealers, or serious scholars, understand that one can often "tell a great deal about a book by its cover." With respect to fine leather bindings, the interested and knowledgeable observer can often determine a wealth of information about a particular book. Leather bindings, including the type of skin or skins used to complete the work, may reveal a great deal about the bookbinder, the trade of bookbinding, and the worth or importance of the book. As the catalog and exhibition illustrate, bookbinders utilize a variety of materials, tools, and techniques to produce their work. Local practices and traditions can help to identify books by the time period and region in which they were produced, often with remarkable certainty. Both the technical competency and the artistic and creative talent of the bookbinder can be featured. In addition, leather bindings with their decorations and applications illustrate technological advances in design and intellectual variations in artistic styles and movements. Fine leather bookbindings can often document much about the aesthetics of owners who have commissioned bookbindings. Finally, these bookbindings may serve as a window, or perhaps a mirror, to the varied literary contents held within their pleasing covers.

The exhibition highlights the intricate technical processes required to produce exquisitely detailed bindings. Shown are representations of different binding and finishing techniques and styles such as tree calf, inlaying and onlaying, and diapering. Among the important binders and binderies featured are: the Doves Bindery, Rivière and Son, Zaehnsdorf, Bayntun, the Kelmscott Press, and the Roycroft Bindery. Texts by Cotton Mather, William Morris, and William Makepeace Thackeray, and works such as the Bible, Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám, and Lady Chatterley's Lover are displayed in beautiful bindings that often help to enhance the literary value of these noted works.


William E. Brown, Jr.
Head, Archives and Special Collections
University of Miami Library

Nora J. Quinlan
Rare Book Cataloger
Archives and Special Collections
University of Miami Library

Pedro A. Figueredo
Assistant Librarian
The Wolfsonian


Acknowledgements

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University of Miami Library
Initial research for the exhibition was begun by Pedro Figueredo in 1995, as a component of his student work for a course in rare books and archives taught by Bill Brown through the University of South Florida School of Library and Information Science. The bindings were exhibited at the University of Miami Library from April 2-June 15, 1997. The project became a collaborative effort, however, as exhibition plans evolved to include a World Wide Web site for a "virtual exhibition" of the bindings.

At the request of James A. Findlay, Librarian, Bienes Center for the Literary Arts at the Broward County Main Library, the exhibition travelled to Fort Lauderdale and will be on display from July 14-September 19, 1997. The University of Miami Library is delighted to loan these materials, and hopes this will be the first of many cooperative ventures with the Broward County Library.

I wish to recognize a number of people who contributed to this worthy project. To Pedro Figueredo I offer my sincere thanks for his dedication and love of books. His enthusiasm and commitment to excellence are worthy goals for us all to emulate. To Nora Quinlan I extend my heartfelt thanks for her incredible professional acumen and her ability to see both the forest and the trees. Additional thanks are due to Frank Rodgers, Director of Libraries at the University of Miami, for his continuing support for the acquisition, promotion, and use of rare and unique scholarly research materials by students, faculty, and interested researchers. Similarly, I wish to acknowledge the support of Micky Wolfson, Cathy Leff, and the staff of The Wolfsonian. Finally I would like to thank Jim Findlay for his invitation to display this exhibit at the Bienes Center for the Literary Arts in its inaugural year.

William E. Brown, Jr.
Head, Archives and Special Collections
University of Miami Library


Bienes Center for the Literary Arts

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The Bienes Center for the Literary Arts is especially gratified to host Bound to Please and is proud and honored to be able to participate with the University of Miami Library in this, its first cooperative exhibition venture. Warm thanks are proffered to Bill Brown, Nora Quinlan, and Pedro Figueredo, curators of the exhibition, to Margaret Bing, cataloger/curator of the Bienes Center for helping to select the titles added to the exhibition from its own collections, and to the Broward Public Library Foundation for its continued support of the Bienes Center's exhibition and program series.

James A Findlay, Librarian
The Bienes Center for the Literary Arts


Introduction

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The binding of a book consists of a text block attached to the front and back boards and the spine. The boards and spine are usually covered with leather, cloth, or paper. The materials can be varied to create different types of bindings. Three basic leather binding formats are full, half, and quarter bound. Leather bindings use different animal skins such as calf, sheep, and pig, which are either tanned or treated.

The binding of a book is done in two stages. The first stage is the making of the inner structure. The gatherings of pages are sewn together and the boards are attached. The material used for the covers is then glued to the inner structure. The decoration of the binding, or finishing, is the second step. The work requires special training and equipment and is expensive and time consuming. To create quality work, binders must serve many years in apprenticeships learning the fine art of binding in all its intricacies.

The author's name appears first, followed by title, place of publication, publisher, date, pagination, size (height by width), and notes, including binder and/or bindery.

1
Gordon Turnbull. A Narrative of the Revolt and Insurrection in the Island of Grenada.
Second edition with additions. London: Printed by A. Paris..., sold by Vernor and Hood..., 1796. 183 p. 22 x 13.5 cm.

Quarter bound in brown calf with marbled paper on covers. Single decorative gilt roll on covers and spine. Double gilt fillets on spine. Spine title in gilt. Raised spine bands.

2
William Wilberforce(1759-1833). A Letter on the Abolition of the Slave Trade... London: Printed by Luke Hansard & Sons, for T. Cadell and W. Davies..., 1807. 396 p. 22.5 x 13.5 cm.

Half bound in brown calf with marbled paper on covers. Single decorative gilt roll on covers. Single gilt fillets on spine. Spine title in gilt. Raised spine bands.

3

Fraser's Magazine for Town and Country. London: James Fraser. July to Decem ber, 1837, vol. xvi. 22 x 14 cm. Contains William Makepeace Thack eray's The Yellow plush Correspon dence. Fully bound in green morocco with decorative gilt roll border on covers. Title and ornaments on spine in gilt. Raised spine bands. Top edge gilt. Signed binding. Tooled in gilt: Bound by Tout and Sons.


Vellum or Parchment Bindings

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Vellum or parchment bindings are made from untanned animal hides. The hide is soaked in lime, scraped clean of hair and flesh and then stretched to dry on a frame. The terms parchment and vellum are now used interchangeably but have a historical difference. Vellum was made from calfskin while parchment was made from sheepskin that had been split. The finer quality parchment was used for creating Medieval manuscripts. Several of the vellum bindings in this exhibit are made from manuscript leaves taken from older books. Recycling of older material was common and was done to conserve scarce resources and save money.

4
Junius.

Stat Nominus Umbra... London: Printed by T. Bentley..., 1799. Two volumes. 21 x 13 cm.

Bound in vellum in the manner of Edward of Halifax. Double lines in blue ink on boards. Gilt ribbon ornaments and decorative rolls on spine. Spine title in blue ink. Edges with gilt stripes.

5
Casimir Freschot (1640?-1720). Histoire du Congrès et de las Paix d'Utrecht, comme aussi de celle de Rastadt & de Bade... A Utrecht, Chez Guillaume van Pool sum, 1716. 503 p. 16.5 x 11 cm.

Bound in vellum, with blindstamped fillet border and ornaments on covers. Gilt ornaments and double fillets on spine.

Handbuechlein: aus der Evangelischen Kirchen Harmonie...

6
Handbuechlein: aus der Evangelischen Kirchen Harmonie... Wulfen Buettel: In Verle gung der Gebrueder, 1646. 304 p. 14 x 8 cm.

Bound in vellum. The binding is made from a manuscript leaf taken from an older book. Rubricated, ruled text can be seen on the binding.

7K
The Tale of Beowulf. [Hammersmith, England: Printed by... William Morris at The Kelmscott Press, 1895]. 119 p. 29.5 x 22 cm.

Gift of Charles Deering. Limp vellum binding with green ribbon ties. Bound at the Kelmscott Press.

8
Marcus Junianus Justinus. Justini His toriae Philippicae cum Integris Commentariis Jac. Bongarsii, Franc. Modii, Matth. Ber necceri... Lugduni Batavorum [Ley den]: apud Theodorum Haak, 1719. 832 p. 20 x 12.5 cm.

Bound in vellum with decorative gilt roll border and floral ornaments on cover and spine. Armorial stamp on front cover.


Pigskin Bindings

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Pigskin bindings are made from alum tawed pigskin. The binding is very strong and can withstand a great deal of wear and tear. The skins were then stretched over wooden boards which made the books even sturdier. Pigskin does not easily accept gold tooling so most of the decoration is blindstamped. The use of pigskin was particularly popular in Germany in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The process has recently undergone a revival due to its superior archival qualities.

Bible. Latin. 1539.

11
Bible. Latin. 1539. Biblia Sacra Utriusque Testamenti, et Vetus Quidem Post Omnes Omnium Hactenus Aeditiones, Opera D. Sebast. Musteri... Tigrui apud Christo phorum Froschoverum, 1539. Unaged. 23 x 16 cm.

Gift of Mr. and Mrs. O.J. Tanner, Jr. Bound in pigskin over wooden boards. Blindstamped covers. Brass clasps in the shape of bird heads.

12
Virgil.
Opera Vergiliana docte et Familiariter Expositer; Docte Quidem Bucolica & Georgica a Seruio... Ex Officina Ascensiana Im pedio Ionnis, Parui, 1507. Unpaged. 33 x 22.5 cm.

Blindstamped pigskin over wooden boards. Brass clasps, damaged.


Colors and Surfaces

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The manipulation of natural grains, texture, and the coloring of leather is a frequent method of book decoration. As an additional artistic element, binders sometimes sculpt the surface of the leather, and apply embossed decorations.

13
Junius. Stat Nominus Umbra... London: Printed by T. Bentley..., 1799. v.1, 274 p. 23 x 14 cm.
Bound in dark blue, straight-grain morocco, with decorative roll borders and ornaments on covers and spine in gilt. Title in gilt on spine. Gilt decorative roll on turn-ins. All edges gilt.

14
A Description of the Memorable Sieges and Battles in the North of England, that Happened during the Civil War in 1642, 1643, &c. Chiefly Contained in the Memoirs of General Forfeits, and James Earl of Derby. To Which is Added, the Life of Oliver Cromwell... Bolton: Printed by J. Drake, 1785. 476 p. 20.5 x 13 cm.

Bound in brown, diced panelled calf with gilt fillets and curves and blindstamped roll borders and ornaments. Gilt armorial device of a ram's head in center of front board. Green leather spine labels with titles in gilt. Spine decorated with gilt ornaments. Gilt decorative roll on turn-ins. Signed binding. Binder's label: Bound by J. & J. Haddock, Warrington.

15
James Shirley (1596-1666). The Traytor. A Tragedie... London: Printed for William Cooke..., 1635. Unaged. 18.5 x 13.5 cm.
Gift of William T. Reich. Bound in full green morocco with single gilt fillet border on covers. Raised spine bands. Gilt title and ornaments on spine. Gilt decorative roll on turn-ins. Signed binding. Binder's stamp on front endpaper: Bayntun. Binder. Bath. Eng.

16
Sulpicius Serverus. Sulpici Serveri Presbyteri Opera Omnia. Cum Lectissimis Commentarijs. Accurante Georgio Hornio. Amstelodami, Apud Elzevirios. Lugd: Bat: et Roterod: apud Hackios, 1665. 329 p. 13 x 8 cm.

Bound in red, straight-grain morocco with decorative roll and double fillets borders in gilt. Decorative black leather inlays on spine. Ornaments, fillets and title on spine in gilt. Gilt decorative roll on turn-ins. Signed binding. Tooled in gilt: Boze vian.

17
Elbert Hubbard (1856-1915). The Man of Sorrows; Being a Little Journey to the Home of Jesus of Nazareth. East Aurora, N.Y.: The Roycrofters, 1905. 111 p. 21.5 x 14 cm.

Gift of Mrs. O.J. Tanner. Bound in brown leather with blind, handcarved pictorial covers. Set in double ruled frame. Bound at the Roycroft Press. Signed binding: In manuscript on front endpaper: T[?]. Kranz made this book. Jul 3. 1905.

18
José Hernández (1834-1886).
Martín Fierro y La Vuelta de Martín Fierro. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Ediciones "Jagüel", 1974. 285 p. 15 x 11 cm. Gift of Robert Agramonte. Bound in brown leather with blindstamped, embossed pictorial covers. Signed binding. Binder's label on inside of back cover: CCC.


Inlays and Onlays

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Bookbinders can achieve a mosaic-like decorative effect on a binding by adding different colors and/or textures of leather. If the pieces of leather are inserted into pre-cut spaces, the process is termed inlaying. If thin pieces of leather are adhered to the surface, the process is called onlaying.

Eric Mackay (1851-1895). Love Letters of a Violinist and Other Poems.

19
Eric Mackay (1851-1895). Love Letters of a Violinist and Other Poems. London: Lamley and Co., 1893. 242 p. 19 x 13.5 cm.

Gift of Charles Deering.

Bound in tan morocco. On front cover is an onlay of a violin done in dark brown and black leather decorated in gilt and surrounded with gilt vine-like decoration. Set within a border of a single gilt fillet interspersed with circle ornaments. Gilt lettering and vine-like decoration on spine. Green silk doublure endpapers. Single gilt fillet on turn- ins.

20
Elizabeth Cleghorn Gaskell (1810-1865). Cranford. London: New York: Macmillan and Co., 1892. 297 p. 19 x 13 cm.

Bound in green morocco. Front cover and spine decorated with gilt tooled crocuses done in variously colored inlays. Raised spine bands. Spine title in gilt. Single gilt fillet on turn-ins.

Signed binding. Stamped in gilt: Bound by Rivière & Son.

21
Horace. The Odes & Epodes of Horace. Boston: Issued by the Bibliophile Society for Members Only, 1901. v.2, pt. 1, 177 p. 19 x 12 cm.

Gift of Dr. Robert Spicer.

Bound in red morocco with gilt fillets borders and decorative ornaments on covers and spine. Decorative floral inlays on spine. Raised spine bands. Title in gilt on spine. All edges gilt.

Signed binding. Stamped in gilt: The Harcourt Bindery.

22
Alexander Wilson Drake (1843-1916). Three Midnight Stories. [New York: The Century Co., 1916]. 117 p. 19 x 12 cm.

Bound in full dark blue-green morocco with blind stamped panel on covers. Decorative inlays in dark green leather. Raised spine bands. Title in gilt on spine.

Bound by Mrs. Alexandra Drake.

23
Hewson L. Peeke (1861-1942). Americana Ebrietatis; The Favorite Tipple of Our Forefathers and the Laws and Customs relating thereto. New York: Privately Printed, 1917. 154 p. 22.5 x 14.5 cm.

Bound in brown morocco with blindstamped ornamental panels on covers and ornaments on spine. Tan leather inlays on covers and spine. Raised spine bands. Title in gilt on spine.


Mottling & Sprinkling

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Mottling and sprinkling are methods used by bookbinders to create decorative patterns on leather bindings. These irregular patterns are produced by the direct application of acid to the leather. Mottling is achieved by dabbing ferrous sulfate on the surface using a cloth, brush, or fingertip. A speckled appearance is produced by sprinkling or splattering acid. The application of different types and strengths of acid allows for variations in tone. The indiscriminate use of acid as a decorative agent can permanently damage the leather.

24
Antonio Caulin (1719-1802). His toria Corógrafica Natural y Evangélica de la Nueva Andalucia Provincias de Cumaná, Guayana y vertientes del Río Orinco... [Mad rid: s.n.], 1779. 482 p. 36 x 25 cm.

Gift of Phanor J. Eder.

Mottled calf with double blind-tooled fillet border on covers. Raised spine bands. Red leather spine label with gilt lettering and ornaments on spine.

25
Jean Baptiste Thibault de Chanvalon. Voyage a la Marti nique, Contenant Diverses Observations sur la Physique, l'Histoire Naturelle, l'Agriculture, les Moeurs, & les Usages de Cette Isle... A Paris: Chez J.B. Bauche..., 1763. 192 p. 26 x 21 cm.

Mottled calf with triple of French blind-tooled fillet border on covers. Raised spine bands. Red leather spine label with gilt lettering and ornaments on spine. Edges stained red.

26
George Carlton. The Memoirs of an English Officer, who serv'd in the Dutch War in 1672, to the Peace of Utrecht, in 1713... London: Printed for E. Symon..., 1728. 352 p. 20 x 13 cm.

Mottled calf with triple or French gilt fillet border with corner ornaments on covers. Raised spine bands. Light brown spine label with gilt lettering. Gilt decorations and ornaments on spine. Gilt decorative roll on turn-ins. All edges gilt.

27
Edme-François Gersaint (d. 1750). Catalogue Raisonné de Coquilles, et Autres Curiosités Naturelles... A Paris: Chez Flahault... [et chez] Prault, Fils..., 1736. 167, 64 p. 17 x 10.5 cm.

Mottled calf with single blind-tooled fillet border on covers. Raised spine bands. Gilt title and ornaments on spine. Gilt decorative roll on turn-ins. Edges stained red.

28


Les Amours Pastorales de Daphnis et Chloé. A Londres: [s.n.], 1780. 196 p. 13 x 8 cm.

Mottled calf with triple or French gilt fillet border on covers. Gilt title, decorations and ornaments on spine. Gilt decorative roll on turn-ins. All edges gilt.

Marble Calf

To create the effect of marble calf the binder stains the surface of a light-colored calfskin with diluted acid. The use of diluted acid can create a variety of effects. One special variation of this technique is known as "tree calf," named for the visual image created on the surface of the leather of a tree trunk and spreading branches. Marble calf bindings reached great popularity during the nineteenth century. Marble calf should not be confused with marbling, the process of using color inks or paints to create decorative patterns on a variety of surfaces including leather, paper, and cloth.

29
Casiano Pel